Volume 1, Number 1 (2016)
Year Launched: 2016
Journal Menu
Previous Issues
Why Us
-  Open Access
-  Peer-reviewed
-  Rapid publication
-  Lifetime hosting
-  Free indexing service
-  Free promotion service
-  More citations
-  Search engine friendly
Contact Us
Email:   service@scirea.org
Home > Journals > SCIREA Journal of Agriculture > Archive > Paper Information

Agronomic Biofortification of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as influenced by Rate and Time of Iodine Fertilization in Southeastern Nigeria

Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2016    |    PP. 50-65    |PDF (463 K)|    Pub. Date: October 13, 2016
349 Downloads     2269 Views  

Binang W.B, Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
Ansa J.E.O., Department of Agricultural Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Ndele Campus, Rivers State, Nigeria
Shiyam J.O., Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
Ntia, J. D. and Ittah, Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
M. A., Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) being a staple food crop for millions of people particularly in sub Sahara Africa is considered to have a high potential for biofortification with micronutrients, but research information on how fertilization with iodine influences its growth an yield, as well as accumulation of iodine in the edible parts of the crop is scanty. Field trials were therefore carried out for two seasons (2012 and 2013), in Calabar (latitude 05o3’ and 04o27’ North and longitude 07o15’ and 09o28’ East), Southeastern Nigeria, to investigate the growth, yield, and iodine content of fresh cassava tubers, and gari (fried/roasted dehydrated cassava flour) as affected by rate and time of soil-applied potassium iodide. 20 cm-long stem cuttings of the cassava (varieties TME 419 and TMS 30555) were planted horizontally on 4.0 × 4.0 m, manually prepared, flat-tilled plots, at 1.0 × 1.0 m spacing, and at one cutting per stand. The experiment was a split-split-plot laid out in randomized complete block design replicated thrice, with cassava variety, rate, and time of fertilization constituting the main-, sub-, and sub-sub- plots, respectively. Treatments were factorial combinations of the two cassava varieties, five rates of potassium iodide (0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kg/ha) and three application times (8, 10, 12 weeks after planting). The growth and yield of cassava was not significantly influenced by soil-applied iodine (P > 0.05), but all cases of applied iodine resulted in a significantly higher concentration of the element in the tubers, and in gari, relative to the unfertilized control, irrespective of variety planted. Incremental rates of fertilization induce progressively higher levels of iodine accumulation, the highest being at the rate of 3.0 kg KI/ha. However, the iodide concentration in the fresh root tubers, or in gari at this concentration did not differ significantly from the lower rates of 2.0 or 2.5 kg KI/ha. Most of the iodine accumulated when fertilization was at 10 WAP, with the combination of 2.0 kg/ha at 10 WAP, followed closely by 1.5 kg/ha at 10 WAP, giving the best results. It would appear that the accumulation began just before the onset of tuberization and peaked at the early stages of bulking. The concentration of iodine in gari was high and similar to that in the fresh root tubers, indicating that biochemical changes arising from fermentation as well as exposure to high temperatures during frying did not reduce the iodine content of gari. The high iodine content in gari suggests that it is potentially bioavailable to consumers.

Cassava variety, Iodine, Agronomic biofortification, Time of application, Rate of application.

Cite this paper
Binang W.B, Ansa J.E.O., Shiyam J.O., Ntia, J. D. and Ittah, M. A., Agronomic Biofortification of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as influenced by Rate and Time of Iodine Fertilization in Southeastern Nigeria, SCIREA Journal of Agriculture. Vol. 1 , No. 1 , 2016 , pp. 50 - 65 .


[ 1 ] Abua, S. N., Ajayi, O. A. and Sanusi, R. A. (2008). Adequacy of dietary iodine in two local government areas of Cross River State of Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7(1):40-43
[ 2 ] Afangide, A. I., Francis, E.O., and Eja, E. (2010). A preliminary investigation into some selected towns in parts of Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 3(3):275-28
[ 3 ] Alves, A. A. C. (2002). Cassava botany and physiology. In: cassava: biology, production and utilization (Eds R. J. Hillocks, J. M. Thresh and A. C. Bellotti). CAB International, pp 67-89
[ 4 ] Ansa, J. E. O., Shiyam, J. O. and Binang, W. B. (2016). Cassava varietal trials for iodine absorption in Southeastern Rainforest, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research 4(4): 773-776
[ 5 ] Barker, J. L. and Mapson, W. (1966). Studies in the respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism of plant tissues XIV. The effects of certain enzymatic poisons on respiration, sugar and ascorbic acid of detached leaves. Journal of Experimental Botany 15:284
[ 6 ] Barrat, N., Chitundu, D., Dover, O., Elsingal, J., Eriksson, S., Guma, L., Haggblade, M., Haggblade, S., Henn, T. O., Locke, F. R., O’Donnell, C., Smith, C. and Stevens, T. (2006). Cassava as drought insurance: food security implications of cassava trials in Zambia. Agrekon 45(1): 106-123
[ 7 ] Benoist, B., Anderson, M., Egli, I., Takkouche, B. and Henrietta, A. (2004). Iodine status worldwide: WHO global database on iodine deficiency. Department of Nutrition for Health and development, Worl Health Organization, Geneva, 49p.
[ 8 ] Blasco, B., Rios, J. J., Cervilla, L. M., Sanchez-Rodrigez, E., Ruiz, J. M. and Romero, M. (2008). Iodine biofortification and antioxidant capacity of lettuce: potential benefits for cultivation and human health. Annals of Applied Biology 152: 289-299
[ 9 ] Borst Pauwels, G. W. F. H. (1961). Iodine as a micronutrient for plants. Plant Soil 14(4): 377-392
[ 10 ] Bouis, H. E., Chassy, B. M. and Ochanda, O. (2003). Genetically modified food crops and their contribution to human nutrition and food quality. Trends in Food Science and Technology 4:191-209
[ 11 ] Bouyoucos,G. H. (1951). A recalibration of the hydrometer method for making mechanical analysis of soils. Agronomy journal 43: 434-438
[ 12 ] Bray, R. A. and Kurtz, L. T. (1945). Determination of total organic and available phosphorus in soils. Soil science 59: 39-45
[ 13 ] Camak, I. (2004). Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant and Soil 302: 1-17
[ 14 ] Cock, J. H. (1984). Cassava. In: the physiology of tropical field crops (Eds P. R. Goldsworthy and N. M. Fisher), Wiley, New York, pp 529-549
[ 15 ] Dai, J. L., Zhu, Y. G., Zhang, M. and Huang, Y. Z. (2004). Selecting iodine-enriched vegetables and the residual effect of iodate application to soil. Biological Trace Elements Research 101(3): 265-276
[ 16 ] Dai, J. L., Zhu, Y. G., Huang, Y. Z., Zhang, M. and Song, J. L. (2006). Availability of iodide and iodate to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) in relation to total iodine in soil solution. Plant and Soil 289:301-308
[ 17 ] El-Sharkawy, M. A. (2004). Cassava biology and physiology. Plant Molecular Biology 56: 481-501
[ 18 ] Etonihu,A. C., Aminu, B. A., Ambo, A. I., and Etonihu, K. I. (2011). Iodine content and pesticide residues of some Nigerian grains. Continental Journal of Agricultural Science 5(1): 26-32
[ 19 ] Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2004). FAO corporate repository. Human vitamin and mineralrequirements, chapter 12. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/y2809e/0i.htm
[ 20 ] FAO Yearbook (2007). Available online at: www.fao.org (accessed on 28th August, 2016).
[ 21 ] FAOSTAT (2011). Food and agricultural commodities production. Available online at: http://faostat.fao.org (accessed on 28th August, 2016).
[ 22 ] Fernando, M. A., Balasuriya, S., Herath, K. B. and Katugampola, S. (1987). Endemic goiter in Sri Lanka. In: Dissanayake, C. B. and Gunatilaka, L. (eds). Some aspects of the environment of Sri Lanka. Colombo, Sri Lanka association for the advancement of science, 46-64p.
[ 23 ] Fuge, R. and Johnson, C. C. (1986). The geochemistry of iodine-a review. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 8:31-54
[ 24 ] Fukuda, W. M. G., Guevara, C. L., Kawuki, R., and Ferguson, M. E. (2010). Selected morphological and agronomic descriptors for the characterization of cassava. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. 19pp
[ 25 ] Genc, Y., Humphries, J. M., Lyons, G. H., and Graham, R. D. (2005). Exploiting genotypic variation in plant nutrient accumulation to alleviate micronutrient deficiency in populations. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 18: 319-324
[ 26 ] GENSTAT Release 10.3DE (2011). VSN International LTd (Rothamsted Experimental Station).
[ 27 ] Graham, R.D. (2003). Biofortification: A global challenge program. International Rice Research Notes (IRRN) 28.1: 4-8
[ 28 ] Graham, R. D., Welch, R. M., and Bouis, H. E. (2001). Addressing micronutrient malnutrition through enhancing the nutritional quality of staple foods: principles, perspectives, and knowledge gaps. Advances in agronomy 70: 77-142
[ 29 ] Hetzel, H. S. and Maberly, G. F. (1986). Iodine. In: Mertz, W. (ed). Trace elements in human and animal nutrition, Academic Press Inc. London, p139-197
[ 30 ] James, B., Okechukwu, R., Abass, A., Fannah, S., Maziya-Dizon, B., Sanni, L., Osei-Sarfoh, A., Fomba, S., and Lukombo, S. (2012). Producing gari from cassava: an illustrated guide for smallholder processors. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA): Ibadan, Nigeria.
[ 31 ] Jiang, X- M., Cao, X- Y., Jiang, J- Y., Ma, T, James, D. W., Rakeman, M. A., Dou, Z- H., Mamette, M., Amette, K. and Zhang, M- L. (1997). Dynamics of environmental supplementation of iodine: four years experience in iodination of irrigation water in Holten, Xinjiang, China. Archives of Environmental Health 52:399-408
[ 32 ] Kawano, K. (1990). Harvest index and evolution of major food crop cultivars in the tropics. Euphytica 46:195-202
[ 33 ] Landini, M., Gonzali, S., and pereta, P. (2011). Iodine biofortifacation in tomato. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 174 (3): 480-486
[ 34 ] Lawson, P. G., Daum, D., Czaudema, R., Meuser, H. and Harting, J. W. (2015). Soil versus foliar iodine fertilization as a biofortification strategy for field-grown vegetables, Frontiers in Plant Science 6:450
[ 35 ] Lehr, J. J., Wybenga, J. M. and Rosanow, M. (1958). Iodine as a micronutrient for tomatoes. Plant physiology 33: 421-427
[ 36 ] Mackowiak, C. L. and Grossl, P. R. (1999). Iodate and iodide effects on iodine uptake and partitioning in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in solution culture. Plant soil 212(2): 135-143
[ 37 ] Muramatsu, Y., an Yoshia, S. (1995). Tracer experiments on the behavior of radioiodine in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry-Articles 194: 303-310
[ 38 ] Nigerian Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) (2003). National Planning Commission (NPC) and OCR MACRO, Calverton, Maryland, USA, 2004
[ 39 ] Nwajiuba, C., and Oyenike, R. (2010). Effect of climate on the agriculture of Sub-Saharan Africa – lessons from Southeast rainforest zone of Nigeria. Oxford Business and Economic Conference Programme, 8
[ 40 ] Ohira, K., Ojima, K. and Fujiwara, A. (1973). Studies on the nutrition of rice cell culture 1: a simple, defined medium for rapid growth in suspension culture, Plant cell Physiol. 14(6): 1113-1121
[ 41 ] Opara- Nadi, O. A. (1988). Liming and organic matter interaction in two Nigerian ultisols: effect on soil pH, organic carbon and early growth of maize (Zea mays L.). Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria, Minna, Niger State, November 27-30th, 1988, pp177-198.
[ 42 ] Pais, I. and James Jr. J. B. (1997). The handbook of trace elements. St. Lucia press, Boca Raton Florida, PP223
[ 43 ] Portienko, W. F., Kudria, L. M. (1966). Galogeny-stymulatory prorastanija pylcy. Fizjol-Rastjenij 13(6):1086
[ 44 ] Rayman, M. P. (2008). Food-chain selenium an human health: emphasis on intake. British Journal of Nutrition 100: 254-268
[ 45 ] Rengel, Z., Batten, G. D. and Crowley, D. E. (1999). Agronomic approaches for improving the micronutrient density in edible portions of field crops. Field Crops Research 60: 27-40
[ 46 ] Udo, E. J. and Ogunwale, S. A. (1978). Laboratory manual for the analysis of soils, plants and water samples, Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
[ 47 ] Udoh, D. J. and Ndon, B. A. (2016). Crop production techniques for the tropics, 2nd edition. Concept Publications Limited, Lagos, Nigeria, 592pp
[ 48 ] Ujowundu, C. O., Ukoha, A. I., Agha, C. N., Nwachukwu, N., Igwe, K. O. and Kalu, F. N. (2010). Effects of potassium iodate application on the biomass and iodine concentration of selected indigenous Nigerian vegetables. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(42):7141-7147
[ 49 ] Umaly, R. C. an Poel, L. W. (1971). Effects of iodine in various formulations on the growth of barley an pea plants in nutrient solution culture. Annals of Botany 35: 127-131
[ 50 ] Voogt, W., Holwerda, H. T., and Khodabaks, R. (2010). Biofortification of lettuce (lactuca sativa L.) with iodine. Journal of Food Science and Agriculture 90 (5): 906-913
[ 51 ] Welch R.M and Graham R.D (2000). A new paradigm for world agriculture: productive, sustainable, nutritious, healthful food systems. Food Nutr. Bull. 21: 361-366
[ 52 ] White, P. J. and Broadley, M. R. (2009). Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets- Fe, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Se and I. New Physiologist 182: 49-84
[ 53 ] Yamada, H., Kiriyama, T., and Yonebayashi, K. (1996). Determination of total iodine in soils by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Soil Science Plant Nutrition 42 (4): 859-866
[ 54 ] Zhu, Y. G., Huang, Y. Z., Hu, Y., and Liu, Y. X. (2003). Iodine Uptake by Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Plants Grown in Solution Culture: Effect of Iodine Species and Solution Concentration. Environmental International 29, 33-37.

Submit A Manuscript
Review Manuscripts
Join As An Editorial Member
Most Views
by Sergey M. Afonin
2935 Downloads 41644 Views
by Syed Adil Hussain, Taha Hasan Associate Professor
2295 Downloads 19449 Views
by Omprakash Sikhwal, Yashwant Vyas
2366 Downloads 16267 Views
by Munmun Nath, Bijan Nath, Santanu Roy
2263 Downloads 16204 Views
Upcoming Conferences