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Home > Journals > SCIREA Journal of Agriculture > Archive > Paper Information

Agronomic Biofortification of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as influenced by Rate and Time of Iodine Fertilization in Southeastern Nigeria

Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2016    |    PP. 50-65    |PDF (463 K)|    Pub. Date: October 13, 2016
323 Downloads     1464 Views  

Author(s)
Binang W.B, Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
Ansa J.E.O., Department of Agricultural Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Ndele Campus, Rivers State, Nigeria
Shiyam J.O., Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
Ntia, J. D. and Ittah, Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
M. A., Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Abstract
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) being a staple food crop for millions of people particularly in sub Sahara Africa is considered to have a high potential for biofortification with micronutrients, but research information on how fertilization with iodine influences its growth an yield, as well as accumulation of iodine in the edible parts of the crop is scanty. Field trials were therefore carried out for two seasons (2012 and 2013), in Calabar (latitude 05o3’ and 04o27’ North and longitude 07o15’ and 09o28’ East), Southeastern Nigeria, to investigate the growth, yield, and iodine content of fresh cassava tubers, and gari (fried/roasted dehydrated cassava flour) as affected by rate and time of soil-applied potassium iodide. 20 cm-long stem cuttings of the cassava (varieties TME 419 and TMS 30555) were planted horizontally on 4.0 × 4.0 m, manually prepared, flat-tilled plots, at 1.0 × 1.0 m spacing, and at one cutting per stand. The experiment was a split-split-plot laid out in randomized complete block design replicated thrice, with cassava variety, rate, and time of fertilization constituting the main-, sub-, and sub-sub- plots, respectively. Treatments were factorial combinations of the two cassava varieties, five rates of potassium iodide (0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kg/ha) and three application times (8, 10, 12 weeks after planting). The growth and yield of cassava was not significantly influenced by soil-applied iodine (P > 0.05), but all cases of applied iodine resulted in a significantly higher concentration of the element in the tubers, and in gari, relative to the unfertilized control, irrespective of variety planted. Incremental rates of fertilization induce progressively higher levels of iodine accumulation, the highest being at the rate of 3.0 kg KI/ha. However, the iodide concentration in the fresh root tubers, or in gari at this concentration did not differ significantly from the lower rates of 2.0 or 2.5 kg KI/ha. Most of the iodine accumulated when fertilization was at 10 WAP, with the combination of 2.0 kg/ha at 10 WAP, followed closely by 1.5 kg/ha at 10 WAP, giving the best results. It would appear that the accumulation began just before the onset of tuberization and peaked at the early stages of bulking. The concentration of iodine in gari was high and similar to that in the fresh root tubers, indicating that biochemical changes arising from fermentation as well as exposure to high temperatures during frying did not reduce the iodine content of gari. The high iodine content in gari suggests that it is potentially bioavailable to consumers.

Keywords
Cassava variety, Iodine, Agronomic biofortification, Time of application, Rate of application.

Cite this paper
Binang W.B, Ansa J.E.O., Shiyam J.O., Ntia, J. D. and Ittah, M. A., Agronomic Biofortification of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as influenced by Rate and Time of Iodine Fertilization in Southeastern Nigeria, SCIREA Journal of Agriculture. Vol. 1 , No. 1 , 2016 , pp. 50 - 65 .

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