Volume 7, Issue 1, February 2022     |     PP. 54-64      |     PDF (207 K)    |     Pub. Date: February 10, 2022
DOI: 10.54647/cm32770    89 Downloads     3115 Views  


Joanne K. Singleton, College of Health Professions, Pace University, New York, USA
Lucille R. Ferrara, College of Health Professions, Pace University, New York, USA

Stress, both positive and negative, is an ever-present part of life for most individuals. College students are most vulnerable for various factors which may include change in living situations, increased degree of learning responsibilities, social factors, and fear of the unknown, to name a few. Providing strategies for the relief of stress that are accessible and practical and do not require pharmacologic intervention were explored. Diaphragmatic breathing and Animal Assisted Activity were two strategies that have been shown to aid in stress relief and were the focus of this study. This randomized controlled study employed three arms, an AAA group, a DB group, and a control group. College students 18 years and older were recruited for participation, which included veterans students. Of the 14 recruited, 10 completed the study. Biomarkers, AA, cortisol, HR, and BP were measured. Two psychometric tests, PSS and SVAS were also used to measure the stress response. Results showed an overall decrease of stress pre and post intervention as reflected in these biomarkers, specifically with AA and cortisol levels. A decrease in the PSS and SVAS was also seen.

stress, college students, psychological stress, physiological stress, non-pharmacologic interventions

Cite this paper
Joanne K. Singleton, Lucille R. Ferrara, NON-PHARMACOLOGIC INTERVENTIONS FOR STRESS MANAGEMENT IN COLLEGE STUDENTS , SCIREA Journal of Clinical Medicine. Volume 7, Issue 1, February 2022 | PP. 54-64. 10.54647/cm32770


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