Neurofilament Light: a biomarker of neurodegeneration correlated with Type 2 diabetes and other related diseases

Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2023     |     PP. 1-24      |     PDF (355 K)    |     Pub. Date: January 1, 2023
DOI: 10.54647/cm32970    85 Downloads     3136 Views  

Author(s)

Liya Tian, School of Nursing, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 619 Changcheng Road, Taian, Shandong, 271000 P.R. China
Wenjing Jiang, Department of Geriatric Medicine and Shandong Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, No. 107 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012, Shandong, China
Nan Fu, Shandong Province Taishan Hospital, No.3 Tianwaicun Street, Taian, Shandong, 271000 P.R. China
WeiHua Liu, School of Nursing, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 619 Changcheng Road, Taian, Shandong, 271000 P.R. China
Yao Liu, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 143, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 AUSTRALIA

Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its related neurodegenerative complications greatly pose a serious health and economic burden. In recent years, neurofilament light (NfL) has been proved to be as a biomarker of neurodegeneration, and the levels of plasma NfL were found to be associated with clinical staging of diabetes mellitus and cognitive decline. In this review, we indicate that the level of NfL in blood may be a valuable clinical tool to distinguish the normal population, pre-diabetes and diabetes patients. In addition, NfL levels of diabetic patients are closely related to diabetic complications, such as diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy, diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Furthermore, NfL levels of diabetic patients is also correlated with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and COVID-19. Therefore, the level of NfL in blood may be a valuable clinical tool to distinguish the normal population, pre-diabetes and diabetes patients, to identify mild cognitive decline in diabetes patients.

Keywords
type 2 diabetes; neurofilament light; neurodegeneration; biomarker; Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; COVID-19

Cite this paper
Liya Tian, Wenjing Jiang, Nan Fu, WeiHua Liu, Yao Liu, Neurofilament Light: a biomarker of neurodegeneration correlated with Type 2 diabetes and other related diseases , SCIREA Journal of Clinical Medicine. Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2023 | PP. 1-24. 10.54647/cm32970

References

[ 1 ] Khalil, M., Teunissen, C. E., Otto, M., Piehl, F., Sormani, M. P., Gattringer, T., Barro, C., Kappos, L., Comabella, M., Fazekas, F., Petzold, A., Blennow, K., Zetterberg, H., Kuhle, J. Neurofilaments as biomarkers in neurological disorders. Nat Rev Neurol. 2018, 14, 577-589.
[ 2 ] Barro, C., Chitnis, T., Weiner, H. L. Blood neurofilament light: a critical review of its application to neurologic disease. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2020, 7, 2508-2523.
[ 3 ] Liu, Y., Atkinson, R. A., Fernandez-Martos, C.M., Kirkcaldie MT, Cui, H., Vickers, J.C., King, A.E. Changes in TDP-43 expression in development, aging, and in the neurofilament light protein knockout mouse. Neurobiol Aging. 2015, 36, 1151-1159.
[ 4 ] Liu, Y., Staal, J. A., Alison, J. C., Kirkcaldie, M. T., King, A. E., Bibari, O., Mitew, S., Dickson, T. C., Vickers, JC. Cytoskeletal changes during development and aging in the cortex of neurofilament light protein knockout mice. J Comp Neurol. 2013, 521, 1817-1827.
[ 5 ] Gaetani, L., Blennow, K., Calabresi, P., Di Filippo, M., Parnetti, L., Zetterberg, H. Neurofilament light chain as a biomarker in neurological disorders. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2019, 90, 870–881.
[ 6 ] Disanto, G., Barro, C., Benkert, P., Naegelin, Y., Schädelin, S., Giardiello, A., Zecca, C., Blennow, K., Zetterberg, H., Leppert, D., Kappos, L., Gobbi, C., Kuhle, J., Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Cohort Study Group. Serum Neurofilament light: A biomarker of neuronal damage in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2017, 81, 857–870.
[ 7 ] Leuzy, A., Mattsson-Carlgren, N., Palmqvist, S., Janelidze, S., Dage, J. L., Hansson, O. Blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. EMBO Mol Med. 2022, 14, e14408.
[ 8 ] Benatar, M., Zhang, L., Wang, L., Granit, V., Statland, J., Barohn, R., Swenson, A., Ravits, J., Jackson, C., Burns, T. M., Trivedi, J., Pioro, E. P., Caress, J., Katz, J., McCauley, J. L., Rademakers, R., Malaspina, A., Ostrow, L. W., Wuu, J., CReATe Consortium. Validation of serum neurofilaments as prognostic and potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for ALS. Neurology. 2020, 95, e59–e69.
[ 9 ] Bäckström, D., Linder, J., Jakobson Mo, S., Riklund, K., Zetterberg, H., Blennow, K., Forsgren, L., Lenfeldt, N. NfL as a biomarker for neurodegeneration and survival in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2020, 95, e827–e838.
[ 10 ] Shahim, P., Politis, A., van der Merwe, A., Moore, B., Chou, Y. Y., Pham, D. L., Butman, J. A., Diaz-Arrastia, R., Gill, J. M., Brody, D. L., Zetterberg, H., Blennow, K., Chan, L. Neurofilament light as a biomarker in traumatic brain injury. Neurology. 2020, 95, e610–e622.
[ 11 ] Burgos-Morón, E., Abad-Jiménez, Z., Marañón, A. M., Iannantuoni, F., Escribano-López, I., López-Domènech, S., Salom, C., Jover, A., Mora, V., Roldan, I., Solá, E., Rocha, M., Víctor, V. M. Relationship Between Oxidative Stress, ER Stress, and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes: The Battle Continues. J Clin Med. 2019, 8, 1385.
[ 12 ] Arroba, A. I., Aguilar-Diosdado, M. Special Issue "The Prevention, Treatment, and Complications of Diabetes Mellitus". J Clin Med. 2022, 11, 5305.
[ 13 ] Tinajero, M. G., Malik, V. S. An Update on the Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes: A Global Perspective. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2021, 50, 337–355.
[ 14 ] Carvajal-Moreno, L., Coheña-Jiménez, M., García-Ventura, I., Pabón-Carrasco, M., Pérez-Belloso, A. J. Prevention of Peripheral Distal Polyneuropathy in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review. J Clin Med. 2022, 11, 1723.
[ 15 ] Martínez-Castelao, A., Navarro-González, J. F., Górriz, J. L., de Alvaro, F. The Concept and the Epidemiology of Diabetic Nephropathy Have Changed in Recent Years. J Clin Med. 2015, 4, 1207-1216.
[ 16 ] Triposkiadis, F., Xanthopoulos, A., Bargiota, A., Kitai, T., Katsiki, N., Farmakis, D., Skoularigis, J., Starling, R. C., Iliodromitis, E. Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Failure. J Clin Med. 2021, 10, 3682.
[ 17 ] Patti, A. M., Rizvi, A. A., Giglio, R. V., Stoian, A. P., Ligi, D., Mannello, F. Impact of Glucose-Lowering Medications on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk in Type 2 Diabetes. J Clin Med. 2020, 9, 912.
[ 18 ] Nauck, M. A., Wefers, J., Meier, J. J. Treatment of type 2 diabetes: challenges, hopes, and anticipated successes. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021, 9, 525–544.
[ 19 ] Demir, S., Nawroth, P. P., Herzig, S., Ekim Üstünel, B. Emerging Targets in Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Complications. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2021, 8, e2100275.
[ 20 ] Moran, C., Beare, R., Phan, T. G., Bruce, D. G., Callisaya, M. L., Srikanth, V., Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Type 2 diabetes mellitus and biomarkers of neurodegeneration. Neurology. 2015, 85, 1123–1130.
[ 21 ] Bharadwaj, P., Wijesekara, N., Liyanapathirana, M., Newsholme, P., Ittner, L., Fraser, P., Verdile, G. The Link between Type 2 Diabetes and Neurodegeneration: Roles for Amyloid-β, Amylin, and Tau Proteins. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017, 59, 421–432.
[ 22 ] Verdile, G., Fuller, S. J., & Martins, R. N. The role of type 2 diabetes in neurodegeneration. Neurobiol Dis. 2015, 84, 22–38.
[ 23 ] Ristow M. Neurodegenerative disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. J Mol Med (Berl). 2004, 82, 510–529.
[ 24 ] Burillo, J., Marqués, P., Jiménez, B., González-Blanco, C., Benito, M., Guillén, C.. Insulin Resistance and Diabetes Mellitus in Alzheimer's Disease. Cells. 2021, 10, 1236.
[ 25 ] Wijesekara, N., Ahrens, R., Sabale, M., Wu, L., Ha, K., Verdile, G., Fraser, P. E. Amyloid-β and islet amyloid pathologies link Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes in a transgenic model. FASEB J. 2017, 31, 5409–5418.
[ 26 ] Gasecka, A., Siwik, D., Gajewska, M., Jaguszewski, M. J., Mazurek, T., Filipiak, K. J., Postuła, M., Eyileten, C. Early Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative and Neurovascular Disorders in Diabetes. J Clin Med. 2020, 9, 2807.
[ 27 ] Papanas, N., Vinik, A. I., Ziegler, D. Neuropathy in prediabetes: does the clock start ticking early?. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011, 7, 682–690.
[ 28 ] O'Bryant, S., Petersen, M., Hall, J., Johnson, L., Yaffe, K., Braskie, M., Toga, A. W., Rissman, R. A., HABLE study team. Characterizing plasma NfL in a community-dwelling multi-ethnic cohort: Results from the HABLE study. Alzheimers Dement. 2022, 18, 240–250.
[ 29 ] Thota, R. N., Chatterjee, P., Pedrini, S., Hone, E., Ferguson, J., Garg, M. L., Martins, R. N. Association of Plasma Neurofilament Light Chain With Glycaemic Control and Insulin Resistance in Middle-Aged Adults. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022,13, 915449.
[ 30 ] Ehtewish, H., Arredouani, A., El-Agnaf, O. Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Mechanistic Biomarkers of Diabetes Mellitus-Associated Cognitive Decline. Int J Mol Sci. 2022, 23, 6144.
[ 31 ] Marutani, N., Akamine, S., Kanayama, D., Gotoh, S., Yanagida, K., Maruyama, R., Mori, K., Miyamoto, T., Adachi, H., Sakagami, Y., Yoshiyama, K., Hotta, M., Nagase, A., Kozawa, J., Maeda, N., Otsuki, M., Matsuoka, T., Iwahashi, H., Shimomura, I., Murayama, N., … Kudo, T. Plasma NfL is associated with mild cognitive decline in patients with diabetes. Psychogeriatrics. 2022, 22, 353–359.
[ 32 ] Ciardullo, S., Muraca, E., Bianconi, E., Cannistraci, R., Perra, S., Zerbini, F., Perseghin, G. Diabetes mellitus is associated with higher serum neurofilament light chain levels in the general U.S. population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2022, dgac580.
[ 33 ] Zhang, J., Chen, C., Hua, S., Liao, H., Wang, M., Xiong, Y., Cao, F. An updated meta-analysis of cohort studies: Diabetes and risk of Alzheimer's disease. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017, 124, 41–47.
[ 34 ] Kimura N. Diabetes Mellitus Induces Alzheimer's Disease Pathology: Histopathological Evidence from Animal Models. Int J Mol Sci. 2016, 17, 503.
[ 35 ] Greene, D. A., Stevens, M. J., Obrosova, I., Feldman, E. L. Glucose-induced oxidative stress and programmed cell death in diabetic neuropathy. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999, 375, 217–223.
[ 36 ] An, Y., Varma, V. R., Varma, S., Casanova, R., Dammer, E., Pletnikova, O., Chia, C. W., Egan, J. M., Ferrucci, L., Troncoso, J., Levey, A. I., Lah, J., Seyfried, N. T., Legido-Quigley, C., O'Brien, R., Thambisetty, M. Evidence for brain glucose dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Demen. 2018, 14, 318–329.
[ 37 ] Pan, Y., Chen, W., Yan, H., Wang, M., Xiang, X. Glycemic traits and Alzheimer's disease: a Mendelian randomization study. Aging (Albany NY). 2020, 12, 22688–22699.
[ 38 ] Shieh, J. C., Huang, P. T., Lin, Y. F. Alzheimer's Disease and Diabetes: Insulin Signaling as the Bridge Linking Two Pathologies. Mol Neurobiol. 2020, 57, 1966–1977.
[ 39 ] Boccardi, V., Murasecco, I., Mecocci, P. Diabetes drugs in the fight against Alzheimer's disease. Ageing Res Rev. 2019, 54, 100936.
[ 40 ] Tang, B., Wang, Y., Jiang, X., Thambisetty, M., Ferrucci, L., Johnell, K., Hägg, S. Genetic Variation in Targets of Antidiabetic Drugs and Alzheimer Disease Risk: A Mendelian Randomization Study. Neurology. 2022, 99, e650–e659.
[ 41 ] Khezri, M. R., Yousefi, K., Mahboubi, N., Hodaei, D., Ghasemnejad-Berenji, M. Metformin in Alzheimer's disease: An overview of potential mechanisms, preclinical and clinical findings. Biochem Pharmacol. 2022, 197, 114945.
[ 42 ] Li, N., Zhou, T., Fei, E. Actions of Metformin in the Brain: A New Perspective of Metformin Treatments in Related Neurological Disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2022, 23, 8281.
[ 43 ] Torrandell-Haro, G., Branigan, G. L., Brinton, R. D., Rodgers, K. E. Association Between Specific Type 2 Diabetes Therapies and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias in Propensity-Score Matched Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Front Aging Neurosci. 2022, 14, 878304.
[ 44 ] Liu, Y., Atkinson, R. A., Fernandez-Martos, C.M., Kirkcaldie MT, Vickers, J.C., King, A.E. Enhanced anti-amyloid effect of combined leptin and pioglitazone in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2020, 17, 1294-1301.
[ 45 ] O'Bryant, S. E., Petersen, M., Hall, J., Johnson, L. A., HABS-HD Study Team. Medical comorbidities and ethnicity impact plasma Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: Important considerations for clinical trials and practice. Alzheimers Dement. 2022, 10.1002/alz.12647.
[ 46 ] Bangen, K. J., Thomas, K. R., Weigand, A. J., Edmonds, E. C., Clark, A. L., Solders, S., Delano-Wood, L., Galasko, D. R., Bondi, M. W., Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Elevated plasma neurofilament light predicts a faster rate of cognitive decline over 5 years in participants with objectively-defined subtle cognitive decline and MCI. Alzheimers Dement. 2021, 17, 1756–1762.
[ 47 ] Mattsson, N., Andreasson, U., Zetterberg, H., Blennow, K., Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Association of Plasma Neurofilament Light With Neurodegeneration in Patients With Alzheimer Disease. JAMA Neurol. 2017, 74, 557–566.
[ 48 ] Lewczuk, P., Ermann, N., Andreasson, U., Schultheis, C., Podhorna, J., Spitzer, P., Maler, J. M., Kornhuber, J., Blennow, K., Zetterberg, H. Plasma neurofilament light as a potential biomarker of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2018, 10, 71.
[ 49 ] Brickman, A. M., Manly, J. J., Honig, L. S., Sanchez, D., Reyes-Dumeyer, D., Lantigua, R. A., Lao, P. J., Stern, Y., Vonsattel, J. P., Teich, A. F., Airey, D. C., Proctor, N. K., Dage, J. L., Mayeux, R. Plasma p-tau181, p-tau217, and other blood-based Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in a multi-ethnic, community study. Alzheimers Dement. 2021, 17, 1353–1364.
[ 50 ] Teunissen, C. E., Verberk, I., Thijssen, E. H., Vermunt, L., Hansson, O., Zetterberg, H., van der Flier, W. M., Mielke, M. M., Del Campo, M. Blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: towards clinical implementation. Lancet Neurol. 2022, 21, 66–77.
[ 51 ] Smirnov, D. S., Ashton, N. J., Blennow, K., Zetterberg, H., Simrén, J., Lantero-Rodriguez, J., Karikari, T. K., Hiniker, A., Rissman, R. A., Salmon, D. P., Galasko, D. Plasma biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease in relation to neuropathology and cognitive change. Acta Neuropathol. 2022, 143, 487–503.
[ 52 ] Benedet, A. L., Leuzy, A., Pascoal, T. A., Ashton, N. J., Mathotaarachchi, S., Savard, M., Therriault, J., Kang, M. S., Chamoun, M., Schöll, M., Zimmer, E. R., Gauthier, S., Labbe, A., Zetterberg, H., Rosa-Neto, P., Blennow, K., Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Stage-specific links between plasma neurofilament light and imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2020, 143, 3793–3804.
[ 53 ] Preische, O., Schultz, S. A., Apel, A., Kuhle, J., Kaeser, S. A., Barro, C., Gräber, S., Kuder-Buletta, E., LaFougere, C., Laske, C., Vöglein, J., Levin, J., Masters, C. L., Martins, R., Schofield, P. R., Rossor, M. N., Graff-Radford, N. R., Salloway, S., Ghetti, B., Ringman, J. M., … Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network. Serum neurofilament dynamics predicts neurodegeneration and clinical progression in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease. Nat Med. 2019, 25, 277–283.
[ 54 ] Lin, C. H., Li, C. H., Yang, K. C., Lin, F. J., Wu, C. C., Chieh, J. J., Chiu, M. J. Blood NfL: A biomarker for disease severity and progression in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2019, 93, e1104–e1111.
[ 55 ] Aamodt, W. W., Waligorska, T., Shen, J., Tropea, T. F., Siderowf, A., Weintraub, D., Grossman, M., Irwin, D., Wolk, D. A., Xie, S. X., Trojanowski, J. Q., Shaw, L. M., Chen-Plotkin, A. S. Neurofilament Light Chain as a Biomarker for Cognitive Decline in Parkinson Disease. Mov Disord. 2021, 36, 2945–2950.
[ 56 ] Uyar, M., Lezius, S., Buhmann, C., Pötter-Nerger, M., Schulz, R., Meier, S., Gerloff, C., Kuhle, J., Choe, C. U. Diabetes, Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Neuroaxonal Damage in Parkinson's Disease (MARK-PD Study). Mov Disord. 2022, 37, 1299–1304.
[ 57 ] Vijiaratnam, N., Lawton, M., Real, R., Heslegrave, A. J., Guo, T., Athauda, D., Gandhi, S., Girges, C., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Zetterberg, H., Grosset, D. G., Morris, H. R., Foltynie, T., PRoBaND Clinical Consortium. Diabetes and Neuroaxonal Damage in Parkinson's Disease. Mov Disord. 2022, 37, 1568–1569.
[ 58 ] Sloan, G., Selvarajah, D., Tesfaye, S. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of diabetic sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2021, 17, 400–420.
[ 59 ] Pop-Busui, R., Boulton, A. J., Feldman, E. L., Bril, V., Freeman, R., Malik, R. A., Sosenko, J. M., Ziegler, D. Diabetic Neuropathy: A Position Statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes care. 2017, 40, 136–154.
[ 60 ] Morgenstern, J., Groener, J. B., Jende, J., Kurz, F. T., Strom, A., Göpfert, J., Kender, Z., Le Marois, M., Brune, M., Kuner, R., Herzig, S., Roden, M., Ziegler, D., Bendszus, M., Szendroedi, J., Nawroth, P., Kopf, S., Fleming, T. Neuron-specific biomarkers predict hypo- and hyperalgesia in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Diabetologia. 2021, 64, 2843–2855.
[ 61 ] Kender Z.; Jende J.M.E.; Kurz F.T.; Tsilingiris D.; Schimpfle L.; Sulaj A.; Von Rauchhaupt E.; Nawroth P.P.; Bendszus M.; Szendroedi J.; Kopf S. Sciatic nerve fractional anisotropy and neurofilament light chain protein are related to sensorimotor deficit of the upper and lower limbs in patients with type 2 diabetes. 58th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Sweden, Stockholm. 19 09 2022 to 23 09 2022.
[ 62 ] Celikbilek, A., Tanik, N., Sabah, S., Borekci, E., Akyol, L., Ak, H., Adam, M., Suher, M., Yilmaz, N. Elevated neurofilament light chain (NFL) mRNA levels in prediabetic peripheral neuropathy. Mol Biol Rep. 2014, 41, 4017–4022.
[ 63 ] Maalmi H., Strom A., Hauck S.M., Zaharia O.P., Strassburger K., Bönhof G.J., Rathmann W., Trenkamp S., Burkart V., Szendroedi J.M., Ziegler D., Roden M., Herder C. High Throughput Proteomics Identifies Neurofilament Light Chain (NFL) as a Novel Blood Biomarker for Detection of Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy. 82nd Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association, United States, New Orleans, LA, 03 06 2022 to 07 06 2022.
[ 64 ] Ruiz-Ortega, M., Rodrigues-Diez, R. R., Lavoz, C., Rayego-Mateos, S. Special Issue "Diabetic Nephropathy: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment". J Clin Med. 2020, 9, 813.
[ 65 ] Selby, N. M., Taal, M. W. An updated overview of diabetic nephropathy: Diagnosis, prognosis, treatment goals and latest guidelines. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020, 22 Suppl 1, 3–15.
[ 66 ] Hojs, R., Ekart, R., Bevc, S., Hojs, N. Biomarkers of Renal Disease and Progression in Patients with Diabetes. J Clin Med. 2015, 4, 1010-1024.
[ 67 ] Koini, M., Pirpamer, L., Hofer, E., Buchmann, A., Pinter, D., Ropele, S., Enzinger, C., Benkert, P., Leppert, D., Kuhle, J., Schmidt, R., Khalil, M. Factors influencing serum neurofilament light chain levels in normal aging. Aging (Albany NY). 2021, 13, 25729–25738.
[ 68 ] Ladang, A., Kovacs, S., Lengelé, L., Locquet, M., Reginster, J. Y., Bruyère, O., Cavalier, E. Neurofilament light chain concentration in an aging population. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2022, 34, 331–339.
[ 69 ] Akamine, S., Marutani, N., Kanayama, D., Gotoh, S., Maruyama, R., Yanagida, K., Sakagami, Y., Mori, K., Adachi, H., Kozawa, J., Maeda, N., Otsuki, M., Matsuoka, T., Iwahashi, H., Shimomura, I., Ikeda, M., Kudo, T. Renal function is associated with blood neurofilament light chain level in older adults. Sci Rep. 2020, 10, 20350.
[ 70 ] Mohan, M., Dihoum, A., Mordi, I. R., Choy, A. M., Rena, G., Lang, C. C. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: A Target for Intervention. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021, 8, 746382.
[ 71 ] Wu, M. Z., Chen, Y., Yu, Y. J., Zhen, Z., Liu, Y. X., Zou, Y., Ho, L. M., Lin, Q. S., Ng, M. Y., Lam, K. S., Tse, H. F., Yiu, K. H. Sex-specific pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021, 22, 930–940.
[ 72 ] Georgakis, M. K., Synetos, A., Mihas, C., Karalexi, M. A., Tousoulis, D., Seshadri, S., Petridou, E. T. Left ventricular hypertrophy in association with cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hypertens Res. 2017, 40, 696–709.
[ 73 ] Papadopoulos, A., Palaiopanos, K., Protogerou, A. P., Paraskevas, G. P., Tsivgoulis, G., Georgakis, M. K. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Stroke. 2020, 22, 206–224.
[ 74 ] Moazzami, K., Ostovaneh, M. R., Ambale Venkatesh, B., Habibi, M., Yoneyama, K., Wu, C., Liu, K., Pimenta, I., Fitzpatrick, A., Shea, S., McClelland, R. L., Heckbert, S., Gottesman, R. F., Bluemke, D. A., Hughes, T. M., Lima, J. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Remodeling and Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Hypertension. 2018, 71, 429–436.
[ 75 ] Patel S., Restrepo C., Khlif M.S., Werden E., Ramchand J., Srivastava P., MacIsaac R., Ekinci E., Burrell L., Brodtmann A. Cerebral Atrophy and Increased Plasma Neurofilament Light in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Left Ventricular hypertrophy: Data from the Diabetes and Dementia (D2) Study. 74th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology, Virtual, 24 04 2022 to 26 04 2022.
[ 76 ] Sjölin, K., Aulin, J., Wallentin, L., Eriksson, N., Held, C., Kultima, K., Oldgren, J., Burman, J. Serum Neurofilament Light Chain in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation. J Am Heart Assoc. 2022, 11, e025910.
[ 77 ] Polymeris, A. A., Coslovksy, M., Aeschbacher, S., Sinnecker, T., Benkert, P., Kobza, R., Beer, J., Rodondi, N., Fischer, U., Moschovitis, G., Monsch, A. U., Springer, A., Schwenkglenks, M., Wuerfel, J., De Marchis, G. M., Lyrer, P. A., Kühne, M., Osswald, S., Conen, D., Kuhle, J., … and for the Swiss-AF Investigators. Serum neurofilament light in atrial fibrillation: clinical, neuroimaging and cognitive correlates. Brain Commun. 2020, 2, fcaa166.
[ 78 ] Gattringer, T., Pinter, D., Enzinger, C., Seifert-Held, T., Kneihsl, M., Fandler, S., Pichler, A., Barro, C., Gröbke, S., Voortman, M., Pirpamer, L., Hofer, E., Ropele, S., Schmidt, R., Kuhle, J., Fazekas, F., Khalil, M. Serum neurofilament light is sensitive to active cerebral small vessel disease. Neurology. 2017, 89, 2108–2114.
[ 79 ] De Marchis, G. M., Katan, M., Barro, C., Fladt, J., Traenka, C., Seiffge, D. J., Hert, L., Gensicke, H., Disanto, G., Sutter, R., Peters, N., Sarikaya, H., Goeggel-Simonetti, B., El-Koussy, M., Engelter, S., Lyrer, P. A., Christ-Crain, M., Arnold, M., Kuhle, J., Bonati, L. H. Serum neurofilament light chain in patients with acute cerebrovascular events. Eur J Neurol. 2018, 25, 562–568.
[ 80 ] Korley, F. K., Goldstick, J., Mastali, M., Van Eyk, J. E., Barsan, W., Meurer, W. J., Sussman, J., Falk, H., Levine, D. Serum NfL (Neurofilament Light Chain) Levels and Incident Stroke in Adults With Diabetes Mellitus. Stroke. 2019, 50, 1669–1675.
[ 81 ] Fukuda T. Special Issue "Clinical Epidemiology of Diabetes and Its Complications". J Clin Med. 2022, 11, 4510.
[ 82 ] Cao, H., Baranova, A., Wei, X., Wang, C., Zhang, F. Bidirectional causal associations between type 2 diabetes and COVID-19. J Med Virol. 2022, 10.1002/jmv.28100.
[ 83 ] Frontera, J. A., Boutajangout, A., Masurkar, A. V., Betensky, R. A., Ge, Y., Vedvyas, A., Debure, L., Moreira, A., Lewis, A., Huang, J., Thawani, S., Balcer, L., Galetta, S., Wisniewski, T. Comparison of serum neurodegenerative biomarkers among hospitalized COVID-19 patients versus non-COVID subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, or Alzheimer's dementia. Alzheimers Dement. 2022, 18, 899–910.
[ 84 ] Kanberg, N., Simrén, J., Edén, A., Andersson, L. M., Nilsson, S., Ashton, N. J., Sundvall, P. D., Nellgård, B., Blennow, K., Zetterberg, H., Gisslén, M. Neurochemical signs of astrocytic and neuronal injury in acute COVID-19 normalizes during long-term follow-up. EBioMedicine. 2021, 70, 103512.
[ 85 ] Needham, E. J., Ren, A. L., Digby, R. J., Norton, E. J., Ebrahimi, S., Outtrim, J. G., Chatfield, D. A., Manktelow, A. E., Leibowitz, M. M., Newcombe, V., Doffinger, R., Barcenas-Morales, G., Fonseca, C., Taussig, M. J., Burnstein, R. M., Samanta, R. J., Dunai, C., Sithole, N., Ashton, N. J., Zetterberg, H., … Cambridge NeuroCOVID Group the CITIID-NIHR COVID-19 BioResource Collaboration and Cambridge NIHR Clinical Research Facility. Brain injury in COVID-19 is associated with dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Brain. 2022, awac321.
[ 86 ] Hay, M., Ryan, L., Huentelman, M., Konhilas, J., Hoyer-Kimura, C., Beach, T. G., Serrano, G. E., Reiman, E. M., Blennow, K., Zetterberg, H., Parthasarathy, S. Serum Neurofilament Light is elevated in COVID-19 Positive Adults in the ICU and is associated with Co-Morbid Cardiovascular Disease, Neurological Complications, and Acuity of Illness. Cardiol Cardiovasc Med. 2021, 5, 551–565.