Ankle brachial index importance in early diagnosis and proper management of peripheral artery disease of lower extremity with special reference to diabetes mellitus

Volume 8, Issue 2, April 2024     |     PP. 28-38      |     PDF (198 K)    |     Pub. Date: July 4, 2024
DOI: 10.54647/pm310253    32 Downloads     1947 Views  

Author(s)

Mohey Hulail, Professor of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of medicine, Al-Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
Diala-Fuad A., M.B.B.ch, General Practice in Irbid , Jordan
Aia-Fuad A., Medical Student in Mutah University in Jordan
Rosol-Fuad A., Medical Student in Zagazig University in Egypt.
Youssef Hussein, Professor, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of medicine, Mutah University, Al- Karak, Jordan

Abstract
- Peripheral artery disease (PAD) of lower extremities is a worldwide healthcare problem. Its prevalence is about 13% in patients over fifty years of age and 29% of people over age of seventy. It affects up to 50% of diabetic patients. This disease is due to partial or total obstruction of one or more the peripheral arteries distal to the aortic arch. It leads to ischemia of the lower extremity that may lead to leg or limb amputations. Also it is a strong predictor of cardiovascular diseases.- It is one of the common complications of type 2 diabetes and has a more aggressive presentation as atherosclerotic plaques tend to be more diffuse in their distribution Early diagnosis of PAD is necessary to allow for early interventions to prevent the functional decline of the lower extremities and to properly manage any associated cardiovascular risk factors. The ankle brachial index (ABI) is the preferred initial screening test for its diagnosis and grading of the obstruction of arteries of lower extremity. ABI is measured by using Doppler ultrasound to obtain the systolic blood pressure of the brachial artery at the right and left arms and that of the dorsalis pedis artery and posterior tibial artery at the right and left ankles. Then the ankle reading is divided by the brachial reading to obtain the ABI measurements. The average normal for adults is ABI values of 0.9 to 1.4. Values lower than 0.9 are indicative of arterial stenosis, and those lower than 0.5 are associated with critical ischemia It is concluded that ABI should be performed for any patient at risk of peripheral artery disease including elderly patients, smokers, diabetics even if they are asymptomatic.

Keywords
Peripheral artery disease, Lower extremity, Ankle-brachial index, diabetes mellitus

Cite this paper
Mohey Hulail, Diala-Fuad A., Aia-Fuad A., Rosol-Fuad A., Youssef Hussein, Ankle brachial index importance in early diagnosis and proper management of peripheral artery disease of lower extremity with special reference to diabetes mellitus , SCIREA Journal of Medicine. Volume 8, Issue 2, April 2024 | PP. 28-38. 10.54647/pm310253

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