Natural Language Processing: An Overview

Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2024     |     PP. 75-88      |     PDF (187 K)    |     Pub. Date: October 29, 2023
DOI: 10.54647/isss120314    51 Downloads     1299 Views  

Author(s)

Mehmet Beyaz, PhD/ TTG International Ltd-R&D Lab. Turkey.

Abstract
Natural Language Processing (NLP) stands at the intersection of linguistics and artificial intelligence, aiming to facilitate meaningful interactions between computers and human languages. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of NLP, tracing its evolution from its inception to its current state-of-the-art methodologies. At its core, NLP seeks to enable machines to understand, interpret, and generate human language in a way that is both meaningful and contextually relevant. The significance of NLP has grown exponentially with the digital age, finding applications in diverse domains such as chatbots, search engines, content recommendations, and automated translation systems.
Historically, NLP relied heavily on rule-based methods and basic statistical approaches. However, the last decade has witnessed a paradigm shift with the advent of machine learning, and more recently, deep learning techniques. These methods, powered by vast amounts of data and enhanced computational power, have led to significant advancements in various NLP tasks. For instance, sentiment analysis, once a challenging endeavor due to linguistic nuances like sarcasm and cultural context, has seen improved accuracy rates with the introduction of neural networks and transformer architectures.
Yet, NLP is not without its challenges. Ambiguities inherent in human languages, polysemy (multiple meanings of a word), and the vast diversity of languages and dialects present hurdles that are yet to be fully overcome. Moreover, as NLP systems become more integrated into our daily lives, ethical considerations, such as bias in algorithms and the potential misuse of generated content, come to the forefront.
Recent innovations, like zero-shot learning and multimodal NLP, which combines textual data with other modalities like images or sound, hint at the future trajectory of the field. As we stand on the cusp of a new era in NLP, it is imperative to reflect on its journey, acknowledge its challenges, and envision a future where machines not only understand human language but do so responsibly and ethically.

Keywords
Natural Language Processing, linguistics, computational technology, human communication, machine understanding, transformer architectures, deep learning, self-attention, sentiment analysis, machine translation, ambiguities, sarcasm detection, cultural variations, ethical implications, biases, fairness, transparency, data modalities, images, audio, zero-shot learning, few-shot learning, generalization, ethical NLP, responsibility, innovation, humanity.

Cite this paper
Mehmet Beyaz, Natural Language Processing: An Overview , SCIREA Journal of Information Science and Systems Science. Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2024 | PP. 75-88. 10.54647/isss120314

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